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style="font-size:14px;font-family:SimSun;color:#E53333;"><strong>地址:重庆市南岸区弹子石路盘龙立äº?石龙印刷工业å›?</strong></span> </p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="JLpages_R"> <div class="JLpages_R_title"> <p>新闻内容</p><span><a href="/">首页</a> > <a href="/news/">新闻信息</a> > 详细内容</span> </div> <div class="JLpages_R_cont"> <!--JLpages_R_cont--> <div class="JLpages_about_cont"> <div class="JLpages_xwnr"> <h1>印刷技术的传播与欧洲城市的经济增长</h1> <h6>来源ï¼?a href='http://www.eoetc.com/news/114.html'>http://www.eoetc.com/news/114.html</a>    å‘布时间 : 2018-09-07</h6> <div class="KTpages_xwnr_cont"> <p><p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">印刷技术的传播与欧洲城市的经济增长</span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">1450年前后,德国人古登堡在美因茨发明了西方世界第一台活字印刷机,印刷技术在此后的几世纪里迅速传播,为欧洲新思想和新技能的传播提供了技术支持ã€?450年到1500年间,书籍的平均价格下降了近七成,中产阶级开始能够获得价格相对低廉的印刷制品。不久后,新教革命随着信息传播方式的革新,从根本上改变了欧洲民众的宗教和文化模式,也让十六世纪的思想家认识到了知识所能带来的巨大力量ã€?/span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">接着,作者在控制了政治自由度、是否拥有港口及是否毗邻河运航道等关键变量进行简单回归后发现,城市在1450-1500年间是否引进印刷机与其在1500年前的经济增长并无关联,却在接下来的100年里,让引进印刷机城市的增长速率比未引进的提升了20个百分点。最先拥有印刷机与否和早期经济增长相关性的缺失,也表明印刷机的引入并非经济增长的结果。意外的是,早期人均印刷书籍的拥有量与各时期经济增长间均无显著相关,反映出非正式的印刷书籍,如在商人间流通的贸易小册刊、价格单等对城市发展的重要作ç”?</span> </p> <p style="text-align:center;"> <img src="http://www.eoetc.com/uploads/image/20180907/20180907095156_5539.jpg" alt="" /> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">这为研究中的回归提供了一个适当的工具变量。第一阶段的回归结果显示,城市与美因茨的距离每增加1个单位(单位:公里的自然对数),其采用印刷机的可能性随之减å°?个百分点;第二阶段回归则表明,在1450-1500年间引进印刷技术的城市,在之后一世纪里比未引进城市的经济更是加快增长äº?8个百分点之巨ã€?/span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">最后,研究者讨论了印刷技术促进城市经济发展的三个潜在路径。第一,活字印刷技术带来了相对廉价的书刊和教科书,提升了民众的识字率,为城市人力资本的初级积累提供了基础;第二,商人通过购买专业书籍获得了重要的商业技能,掌握了利率和汇率计算法、复式记账法等,提升了贸易效率。回归结果中印刷技术对港口城市的突出影响也印证了从事海上贸易的商人从印刷机的普及中获得的巨大收益;第三,书籍价格的下降催生出了一批新的城市精英。工程师、律师、医生、教师数量增加,拥有印刷业的城市甚至吸引了书商、翻译、学生的移民乃至大学的建立ã€?/span> </p> <p> <span style="font-size:16px;font-family:SimSun;">虽然印刷技术早已在现代社会普及,但本文的研究仍然具有现实意义。如何拆掉知识的高墙,让新的信息更快为民众和专业人员所接触,仍然是我们所面临的挑战。但可以肯定的是,尽可能地消除知识和信息的壁垒,能够为整个社会带来更大的活力ã€?/span> </p></p> </div> <div>上一æ?<a href="115.html">重庆印刷的五大关键要点!</a></div> <div>下一æ?<a href="113.html">全自动印刷机与半自动印刷机的区别</a></div> <h3 style="margin-top:5px;">相关标签ï¼?/h3> </div><p class="clear"></p></div> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="title_com"><div>相关新闻</div></div> <div class="news_list"> <ul> <li><span>2019-01-24</span><a href="/news/130.html" target="" title="重庆印刷厂常用的纸张和开æ•?>重庆印刷厂常用的纸张和开æ•?/a></li> <div class="clear"></div> </ul> <ul> <li><span>2019-01-17</span><a href="/news/129.html" target="" title="新基业重庆包装印åˆ?电商助推个性化包装印刷定制">新基业重庆包装印åˆ?电商助推个性化包装印刷定制</a></li> <div class="clear"></div> </ul> <ul> <li><span>2019-01-10</span><a href="/news/128.html" target="" title="「重庆包装印刷」怎么判断印刷色彩对比饱和åº?">「重庆包装印刷」怎么判断印刷色彩对比饱和åº?</a></li> <div class="clear"></div> </ul> <ul> <li><span>2019-01-03</span><a 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